The gruesome lynching of Madhu, a 27-year-old Adivasi youth from Chindakki, in the Attappadi area of Palakkad district is yet another example of how successive political parties and governments have neglected the area for decades. In fact, Attappadi has received national attention since 2010 for its high infant mortality rate (IMR). A study conducted by the Kerala Institute of Local Administration (KILA) in 2012 showed 63 in the period 2010-2012. and 2012-13. The government has announced a special scheme of Rs 400 crore for the welfare of the Attappadi tribe following the mass infant deaths. Ironically, however, these funds were not well spent and infant mortality continued in the Adivasi region with 30 deaths in 2014, 14 in 2015, nine in 2016 and 10 in 2017. 10 deaths (as of July).
The magnitude of the problem was well reflected in Prime Minister Narendra Modi's speech during his trip to Kerala in May 2016 for the cyclonic elections, when he included the indigenous and tribal population of Kerala. Deaths from poverty and malnutrition in the United States equal those in sub-Saharan countries such as Somalia. Somalia's IMR was 85 in 2015, while Attapaddi district had an IMR of 66 and the rest of Kerala state 12, according to a 2013 study by the National Institute of Nutrition.
What was wrong with Attappadi?
Does the Attappadi tragedy reflect the flaws in the "Kerala development model" praised by many leading economists and secularists like Nobel laureate Dr. Amartya Sen? Attappadi's case studies shed light on complex issues related to development and the attitudes of government and civil society towards vulnerable and marginalized groups.
Attappadi district, spread over an area of 745 square kilometers and having an indigenous population of about 10,000, is the first tribal block of Kerala. Soon after independence, more than 90 percent of the area consisted of dense reserve forests. After about 15 years, the forest coverage rate fell to 82%, and then the forest area continued to decrease, which currently amounts to about 20%. In fact, the enactment of the Kerala Private Forests (Allotment and Transfer) Act, 1967, which limited each landowner's land ownership to a maximum of 15 hectares, resulted in the widespread sale of private forest land by six landowners at lump sum prices. Most of the land in Attappadi. The new owners are mainly entrepreneurs, wood traders and sawmill owners, who have almost finished the forest with massive cutting of trees. Although the government failed to stop the menace, most political leaders cooperated with these groups. As a result, the process of deforestation continued until 1980, and the controversy surrounding Tiha Dolina attracted the attention of environmentalists and nature lovers internationally.
Deforestation not only causes serious environmental and ecological impacts such as reduced water sources and climate change, but also adversely affects the lives of indigenous peoples. They had to abandon traditional crops such as rags, maize, millet and beans. The breeding of goats and cattle disappeared, and the harvesting of secondary forest products such as honey and medicinal plants became impossible. Unemployment and poverty became two aspects of the Aboriginal population. Demographic changes in the area have adversely affected the lives and livelihoods of most Adivasis, with settlers driving them from their land and traditional ways of life. Over the past 50 years, the percentage of Aboriginal people in the region has dropped from 91 percent to 41 percent. During the same period, the non-indigenous population in the region increased from 9% to 59%.
A survey report revealed that settlers from central Kerala, Tamil Nadu and Karnataka have encroached on 10,472 hectares of native land in Attappadi block. The Irula tribe was the worst affected, losing 8,996.14 hectares, followed by Mudugas (1,083.17 hectares) and Kurumba (26 hectares). Ironically, influential political leaders in the region encouraged a large influx of non-tribals and sought to occupy large tracts of forest or indigenous land. Of course, they became loyal supporters of the immigrant lobby. In addition, some political leaders, especially the pro-settler ones, have managed to acquire large tracts of land at a lump sum price and use the labor of Adivasis to convert them into plantations, depriving them of minimum wages.
Consequently, despite a series of agitations and campaigns by various aboriginal organizations over the past 30 years, the state has been unable to resolve the fundamental issue of restoring aboriginal land and its distribution among landless aboriginals. Restoring alienated land is undoubtedly a complex issue, but the main obstacle to finding solutions that protect the interests of the indigenous population is the lack of sincerity and commitment from the main political parties. While several regional parties openly championed the cause of the settlers, other major parties and their leaders expressed sympathy for the settlers rather than the Adivasis. In 1999, the state government identified land in the remote area of Sholayar panchayat for allotment to the landless indigenous people. However, despite accepting land title deeds, the vast majority of Adivasis have not moved to this barren land that lacks basic amenities or infrastructure. Moreover, out of 2,523 land dispute cases registered in Attapadi area, only 13 cases covering 44.77 hectares have been resolved so far.
The story of development in the Adivasi region is equally dire. Political gurus and bureaucrats are the main players. Almost two decades after independence, new projects and plans for the development of the area were designed. The state government declared Attappadi as the first tribal district of Kerala in 1975 with the aim of ensuring full development of the Adivasis. After the announcement, the central and state governments poured money into building roads, houses, bridges and other infrastructure. But the illicit connections of contractors, political brokers and bureaucrats have effectively sabotaged major projects and programs and siphoned away much of such funding. By the late 1980s, a series of embezzlement and fraud incidents surfaced one after the other, virtually turning Adapadi into a breeding ground for organized corruption. In addition to various programs initiated by the central and state governments, many funding agencies and NGOs are also involved in various projects in the fields of afforestation, water conservation, education, health and literacy among Adivasis. In many cases, their organized activities are foreign to indigenous cultures and customs and have actually damaged the traditional way of life of part of the local population.
Ironically, some government policy decisions - despite claims of good intentions - work against the overall interests of indigenous peoples. One of these decisions was a complete ban on alcohol in the area from April 1995. All arrack and toddy shops were closed and toddy from the Attappadi area was supplied in large quantities. The worst victim of the decision was the Adivasis. Most Adivasis, who traditionally use alcohol during extreme winters and in their ceremonies and customs, are now starting to produce illegal alcohol in their small villages. Soon, several small Adivasi villages in the hinterland became the center of production and sale of village wine. Organized alcohol mafias operating outside the region use them for their illegal liquor business. With their permission, marijuana also began to be grown in forested areas in the interior. Such activities have resulted in a series of actions by law enforcement agencies, along with frequent raids and harassment of Adivasis. While Adivasis were victims of such operations, illegal liquor mafias and law enforcement agencies thrived with the support of local political leaders.
Another decision was to ban cattle breeding in Attappadi, with the rationale that the extensive use of the hilly terrain for this purpose had a negative impact on the sensitive ecology and flora and fauna of the area. The decision was made as part of one of the most ambitious development plans, the Attappadi Wasteland Integrated Environmental Protection Project launched in 1995 with the support of Attappadi Mountain Development (here). There is no doubt that the above projects have implemented multiple programs such as ecological restoration through tree planting, dyke construction, rainwater harvesting, etc., skills development and income generation programs for Aboriginal people and rebuilding of Aboriginal village centers with better homes, communities, etc. However, by discouraging Adivasis and settlers from pursuing traditional occupations such as cattle and sheep rearing and agriculture in the name of ecological restoration, and by creating hundreds of thousands of man-days in these sectors, the aforementioned projects ultimately alienate large sections of the Adivasi population from their traditional sources of livelihood. for life. Not only that, some programs or programs initiated under the project have been abandoned or have become unfeasible in the changing socio-economic situation. Its ill effects continue to affect a significant section of Adivasis, the latest manifestation of which was the spate of infant deaths in the Attappadi area. Paradoxically, even the additional funds sanctioned by the central and state governments to deal with such tragedies of war have not been properly spent. In this scenario, more and more newborns are likely to die, more and more Madhus will become victims of mob fanaticism, and the powerful settler lobby, directly or indirectly supported by the state superstructure, will always be strong.
(According to an excerpt from the soon-to-be-published book, "Kerala: Indigenous Population, Rebellion and Politics'Author)
*K V Thomas is a senior associate at CPPR and former Assistant Director of Intelligence. The views expressed by the author are their own and do not necessarily reflect the views of the CPPR
Contractor Past Performance Rating (CPPR) Guidelines.What is the CPPR? ›
Contractor Past Performance Rating (CPPR) Guidelines.What is the National Committee for Public Policy research? ›
The National Center for Public Policy Research, founded in 1982, is a self-described conservative think tank in the United States. Its founding CEO was Amy Ridenour, who was chairwoman. David A. Ridenour, her husband, is president, having served as vice president from 1986-2011.Who is the think tank of India? ›
|Foundation for Democratic Reforms (FDR)||Politics, Policy, Governance|
|Indian Council of World Affairs (ICWA)||International relations, Strategy|
|Indian Institute of Corporate Affairs (IICA)||Business|
|Institute for Defence Studies and Analyses (IDSA)||Military|
Strategy 1: Identify a public law that addresses a social problem you are interested in. Strategy 2: Identify a program that addresses a social problem you are interested in. Strategy 3: Use the CQ Researcher to find reports related to a social problem you are interested in.What is the salary of CPPR Kochi? ›
Average annual salary in Centre for Public Policy Research is INR 5.3 lakhs .When should you do CPR? ›
If you're well-trained and confident in your ability, check to see if there is a pulse and breathing. If there is no pulse or breathing within 10 seconds, begin chest compressions. Start CPR with 30 chest compressions before giving two rescue breaths.What does a public policy committee do? ›
Researching and implementing public policy activities in accordance with the County's adopted legislative agendas. Advancing specific Commission initiatives related to each body's work into the public policy arena. Other duties as assigned by the Commission or the Board of Supervisors.What is public policy research? ›
Health Policy research aims to understand how policies, regulations, and practices may influence population health. Translating research into evidence-based policies is an important approach to improve population health and address health disparities.What was the purpose of the committee of public? ›
The Committee of Public Safety was created by the National Convention in 1793 with the intent to defend the nation against foreign and domestic enemies, as well as to oversee the new functions of the executive government.
Congratulations to Clare, the first contestant to answer Question Impossible correctly and take home the big brain! #ABCThinkTank weeknights at 6pm!How much do think tanks pay in India? ›
Average annual salary in Think Tank is INR 9.3 lakhs .What is the famous conservative think tank? ›
The Heritage Foundation (abbreviated to Heritage) is an American conservative think tank based in Washington, D.C. The foundation took a leading role in the conservative movement during the presidency of Ronald Reagan, whose policies were taken from Heritage's policy study Mandate for Leadership.What is the 5 step public policy process? ›
Most policy models generally include the following stages: (1) identifying the issue to be addressed by the proposed policy, (2) placement on the agenda, (3) formulation of the policy, (4) implementation of the policy, and (5) evaluation of the policy.What is the difference between law and public policy? ›
"Law is the foundation of our government. It's the rules we live by. It's how we settle disputes. And then public policy is about the decisions the government makes about society at large.”What are the four steps in public policy? ›
The public policy process, in simplified form, can be understood as a sequence of four phases: agenda setting, formulation, implementation, and evaluation.What is prime minister salary in India? ›
|Position in the Indian order of precedence||Post||Net Salary per month (including other emoluments and allowances)|
|3||Prime Minister||₹720,000 (US$9,000)|
|2||Vice President||₹400,000 (US$5,000)|
Government of Kerala Overseer salary in India ranges between ₹ 1.0 Lakhs to ₹ 5.2 Lakhs with an average annual salary of ₹ 2.9 Lakhs.What is the salary of Kerala PSC Chairman? ›
The commission shall consist of a Chairman and fourteen other Members. 4. (1) There shall be paid to the Chairman a salary at the rate of five thousand two hundred and eighty five rupees1” per mensum and to other members at the rate of four thousand seven hundred and eighty five rupees2 per mensum.What are the 6 times you should stop CPR? ›
- ROSC. ...
- pre-existing chronic illness preventing meaningful recovery. ...
- acute illness preventing recovery. ...
- no response to ACLS after 20min of efficient resuscitation in absence of ROSC, a shockable rhythm or reversible causes.
 This recommendation has led to many departments implementing rules for termination of resuscitation that include providing at least 20 minutes of on-scene CPR.  Also, EMS agencies must have active physician oversight when making protocols and must consider the providers' training.Who should you not do CPR on? ›
Do not perform CPR if the victim is breathing normally when something is not right, and if the area is dangerous. The American Heart Association recommends using hands-only CPR for untrained bystanders.Who are the policy committee members? ›
- Governor of the Reserve Bank of India – Chairperson, ex officio - Shaktikanta Das.
- Deputy Governor of the Bank in charge of monetary policy – Michael Debrata Patra.
- Executive Director of the Bank in charge of monetary policy – Rajiv Ranjan.
An essential role of chairmen is to ensure that a Committee conducts its business in the manner he/she deems appropriate, in the light of the Rules of Procedure and his/her understanding of the mandate and the wishes of the conference.Who is the chairman of a committee? ›
The chairperson, also chairman, chairwoman or chair, is the presiding officer of an organized group such as a board, committee, or deliberative assembly.What are the 5 types of public policy? ›
Lowi claimed that public policies tend to fall into one of these four types: distributive, redistributive, regulatory, and constituent. Some scholars consider substantive policy to be the fifth main type of public policy.What is a public policy PhD? ›
A PhD in Public Policy and Administration is a leadership-focused degree designed to help you gain a detailed understanding of public policy theory, research, ethics, and practice in a global context.What's another word for public policy? ›
nounlaw affecting the public. government law.When was the Committee of Public Safety disbanded? ›
|Commissioners of the Committee of Public Safety|
|Date formed||1 April 1794|
|Date dissolved||1 November 1795|
|People and organisations|
|Head of state||Committee of Public Safety|
In the following Thermidorian Reaction, the committee's influence diminished after 26 months and it disappeared on the same day as the National Convention, which was 25 October 1795, but it probably continued till the end of the month.
The fall of Maximilien Robespierre came in July 1794, the month of Thermidor in Year II in the revolutionary calendar. On July 28th, Robespierre's life ended on the guillotine, the instrument of death to which he had condemned so many others.Do people at think tanks make money? ›
People working within the Think Tank category in your area are making on average $19 per hour, or $2.35 (11%) less than the national average hourly salary of $21.16. ranks number 1 out of 50 states nationwide for Think Tank job salaries.How much do Think Tank people get paid? ›
|Research Analyst||Range:$41k - $71k||Average:$53,960|
|Program Coordinator, Non-Profit Organization||Range:$43k - $63k||Average:$51,669|
|Project Manager, (Unspecified Type / General)||Range:$49k - $89k||Average:$66,000|
|Senior Policy Analyst||Range:$64k - $130k||Average:$92,137|
Yet it seems that Washington, D.C., is home to more think tanks—and better ones—than any other city on Earth. In fact, six of the world's 20 best such organizations are headquartered in the nation's capital, according to the University of Pennsylvania's Think Tanks and Civil Strategies Program (TTCSP).How much does an oil rig pay in India? ›
A mid-career RIG Mechanic with 4-9 years of experience earns an average salary of ₹5.6 Lakhs per year, while an experienced RIG Mechanic with 10-20 years of experience earns an average salary of ₹9.1 Lakhs per year.How do think tanks make money? ›
Most think tanks focus on producing research publications and policy work, but some also host conferences and seminars and work closely with government and advocacy leaders to help advance their research and causes. Most think tanks are funded through private donations, grants and in some cases, public funds.What is the salary of policy research in India? ›
The average Centre for Policy Research salary ranges from approximately ₹6.8 Lakhs per year for a Research Associate to ₹10.7 Lakhs per year for a Senior Research Associate.What movie stars are Republicans? ›
- Getty. ...
- Melissa Joan Hart. ...
- Kelsey Grammer. ...
- Kristy Swanson. ...
- Tim Allen. ...
- Caitlyn Jenner. ...
- James Woods. ...
- Arnold Schwarzenegger.
Top Think Tanks for Western Europe:
French Institute of International Relations (IFRI) (France) International Institute for Strategic Studies (IISS) (United Kingdom) Chatham House (United Kingdom) Konrad Adenauer Foundation (KAS) (Germany)
Conservatives believe in the importance of stability, and promote law and order to protect private property. Liberals believe in universal access to health care; they believe personal health should be in no way dependent upon one's financial resources, and support government intervention to sever that link.
- STEP 1: IDENTIFY, DESCRIBE AND ANALYZE THE PROBLEM. ...
- STEP 2: IDENTIFY AND ANALYZE POLICY OPTIONS. ...
- STEP 3: DETERMINE AND UNDERSTAND DECISION-MAKERS AND INFLUENCERS. ...
- STEP 4: ASSESS READINESS FOR POLICY DEVELOPMENT. ...
- STEP 5: DEVELOP AN ACTION PLAN. ...
- STEP 6: IMPLEMENT THE ACTION PLAN.
Congress, the President, the Cabinet, advisers, agency bureaucrats, federal and state courts, political parties, interest groups, the media... All of these groups interact to make political decisions in the United States. The power to formulate and implement policy is often divided between several entities.What are the 5 elements of policy making? ›
The five stages of the policy process are (1) agenda setting, (2) formulation, (3) adoption, (4) implementation and administration, and (5) evaluation.Are public policy degrees worth it? ›
Is a degree in public policy worth it? Many graduates find that a public policy degree allows them to develop and implement policy changes that help people live better lives. Careers for public policy majors include research-focused jobs, roles within government agencies, and lobbyist positions.Is a public policy a law? ›
Public policy can be generally defined as a system of laws, regulatory measures, courses of action, and funding priorities concerning a given topic promulgated by a governmental entity or its representatives.What are some examples of public policy issues? ›
- Anti-Corruption and Transparency.
- Arms Control and Nonproliferation.
- Climate Crisis.
- Countering Terrorism.
- COVID-19 Response and Recovery.
- Cyber Issues.
- Disarming Disinformation.
Every policy has three key elements: a problem definition, goals to be achieved, and the policy instruments to address the problem and achieve the goals.What happens to a public policy after it has been implemented? ›
Once the government has legitimized some form of public policy such as a law, statute, edict, rule, or regulation, the stipulations of that policy must be put into action, administered, and enforced to bring about the desired change sought by the policy-makers.What criterion determines a federal job's salary? ›
What criterion determines a federal job's salary? nonfeasance. Which president proposed the civil service reforms that led to passage of the Civil Service Reform Act of 1978?What was the purpose of the Committee on Public Information quizlet? ›
The Committee on Public Information (1917-1919), also known as the CPI or the Creel Committee, was an independent agency of the government of the United States created to influence public opinion to support US participation in World War I.
A caucus is an informal organization of members of the House or the Senate, or both, that exists to discuss issues of mutual concern and possibly to perform legislative research and policy planning for its members.What was the goal of the Committee on Public Information apex? ›
CPI established to mobilize public opinion behind World War I. President Woodrow Wilson established the committee in April 1917 through Executive Order 2594 in response to the U.S. entry into World War I in an attempt to mobilize public opinion behind the war effort with every available form of mass communication.What is the National committee for Democratic? ›
The Democratic National Committee (DNC) is part of the United States Democratic Party. The committee coordinates strategy to support Democratic Party candidates throughout the country for local, state, and national office, as well as works to establish a "party brand".What impact did the Committee on Public Information have? ›
In just over 26 months (from April 14, 1917, to June 30, 1919) it used every medium available to create enthusiasm for the war effort and to enlist public support against the foreign and perceived domestic attempts to stop America's participation in the war. It is a notable example of propaganda in the United States.What was the purpose of the Creel Committee also known as the Committee on Public Information? ›
The Committee on Public Information was an independent agency of the United States government that functioned from 1917 to 1919. Also known as the CPI, or Creel Committee, the agency's primary objective was to influence public opinion concerning U.S. involvement in World War 1.What is the main purpose of the Rules Committee Why is this committee so powerful? ›
Rules. The House Rules Committee considers all bills reported from policy and fiscal committees and determines whether, and in what order, to schedule their consideration on the floor of the House. The Rules Committee also reviews, adopts and schedules consideration of floor resolutions.What are the most powerful committees in Congress? ›
The most powerful committees, such as Energy & Commerce, Appropriations and Ways & Means are of special interest to lobbying firms.What are the 4 types of committees? ›
- Standing Committees. ...
- Subcommittees. ...
- Select Committees. ...
- Joint Committees. ...
- Committee of the Whole.
- Deputy Vice-Chancellor (Research) (Chair).
- Pro Vice-Chancellor (Research and Innovation) (Deputy Chair).
- Associate Dean, Research of each faculty.
- Director of Research Services and Dean, Graduate Studies.
- University Librarian or nominee.
From 1917 to 1918, Creel's Committee on Public Information successfully unified the American people while minimizing the influence of those who remained committed to neutrality.
The Four Minute Men were a group of volunteers authorized by United States President Woodrow Wilson to give four-minute speeches on topics given to them by the Committee on Public Information (CPI).Why was the Committee on Public Information CPI important? ›
The federal government established the Committee on Public Information (CPI), which deployed propaganda to convince Americans of World War I's legitimacy and the importance of civic contributions. Congress also passed the Espionage (1917) and Sedition (1918) Acts to enforce loyalty and silence dissent.What are the two national committees that run political campaigns? ›
National party committees
Only federally permissible funds may be raised and spent by the national parties. The Democratic and Republican parties each have three national party committees: a national committee, a House campaign committee and a Senate campaign committee.
From workers' rights to protecting the environment, equal pay to fighting the special interests, Democrats believe we can and should make life better for families across our nation. fairness, justice, and equality for all by standing up for all middle-class Americans and those struggling to get there.Who controls the Republican National Committee? ›
Organization. The current chair of the Republican National Committee is Ronna McDaniel, serving since 2017. McDaniel was previously chair of the Michigan Republican Party from 2015 to 2017.